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Going up and floating high: BAF for carbon removal on the French coast

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Biological Aerated Filters (BAFs), were developed in Europe more than 20 years ago, originally to achieve the European standards for daily average effluent requirements, especially for total nitrogen limits. Since then, they have been employed in various municipal wastewater treatment applications throughout the world. Over the last five years, developments of this technology have lead to of its use as a solution for compact plants for carbon removal, often following chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT).

Due to the high solids and BOD content of primary effluent, BAFs for carbon removal only require larger media to maintain a low head loss and to store the increased sludge production. Moreover, the media should be small enough to ensure the filtration effect of the media bed. Several plants in France have already been upgraded to meet new carbon standards. Based on the combination of CEPT and BAFs, those plants achieve carbon removal down to 25 mg BOD/l and 25 mg TSS/l on a 24 hours average.

This paper presents different options to achieve carbon removal with BAFs including some case studies in France.


Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2007-10-01

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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