Skip to main content

Contract Operations and Maintenance – A Brief History of the Industry

Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

Contract operations and maintenance for municipal water and wastewater treatment facilities have been widely practiced in the US for almost four decades. During the tumultuous 1970's when many utilities were challenged with the requirements of the Clean Water Act, these services were generally accepted by municipal leaders and employees as a viable option for improved staffing and technical know how. During the 1980's the popularity of contract O&M services continued to grow with increased interest in project financing assistance, including larger facilities that were represented by labor unions. Throughout the 1990's additional facilities were contracted though traditional service agreements, full privatization agreements or design build, operate projects.

Today contract O&M services have appeared to reach a pinnacle as fewer municipalities are being faced with the many challenges of the past. However, are there similar challenges and problems emerging on the horizon that may call to order the services of the private sector? These challenges may include significant staff shortages resulting from planned retirements, increased regulatory pressure directed at buried infrastructure improvements and stromwater abatement programs and the financial wherewithal associated with these burdens.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Data/Media
No Metrics


Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2007-10-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more