Membranes for Industrial Water Reuse – They're Not Just for Municipal Applications Anymore
Author: Cummings, Gregg
Source: Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, Industrial Water Quality 2007 , pp. 695-709(15)
Publisher: Water Environment Federation
Abstract:Over the last few years, membranes have become the preferred treatment technology in municipal water and wastewater treatment. However, many industrial treatment processes have continued to rely on conventional techniques. With recent improvements in membrane technologies, and with more stringent discharge requirements for industrial systems, membranes are becoming the preferred treatment technology for industrial processes as well. Common applications for using membranes in industrial treatment systems include: - Secondary treatment, using Membrane Bio-Reactors (MBR), where BOD and TSS limits are being tightened. - Tertiary treatment, using low pressure membranes (e.g.Microfiltration), where the effluent is being reused. - Tertiary treatment, using high pressure membranes (e.g.Nanofiltration, Reverse Osmosis [RO ]), when Total Dissolved Solids, metals, and/or emerging contaminants must be removed to meet tightened discharge requirements. Most industrial wastewater streams contain higher organic loads, measured in thousands of mg/l BOD and COD, than municipal streams. Also, many industrial streams have high concentrations of TDS. Finally, peaking factors for industrial streams tend to be much higher than for municipal streams. These factors make industrial treatment systems challenging to design. This presentation provides information on how membranes have been or will be used in several industrial applications to achieve treatment targets throughout California.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: October 1, 2007
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