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Removal of 4-chlorophenol from Wastewater Using Granular Activated Carbon (CAC) Modified with Different Chemical Agents

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This laboratory study investigates the treatment performances of granular activated carbon (GAC) in removing 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) from contaminated wastewater. The compound is selected as a model of chlorinated organic pollutants that has been frequently found in landfill leachate. The adsorbent was derived from coconut shell, an agricultural waste from the coconut industry. The surface modification of GAC with TiO2, HNO3, or NaOH was undertaken to improve its removal for 4-CP. Batch studies were conducted to study the effects of dose and pH in removing 4-CP by an adsorption treatment. The removal performances of chemically treated GAC for 4-CP were statistically evaluated and also compared to those of other low-cost adsorbents in other reported studies. Both the Langmuir and the Freundlich models were used to simulate their adsorption isotherm.

At the same initial 4-CP concentration of 25 mg/L and under optimized conditions (dose: 6 g/L, pH: 2.0; agitation speed: 150 rpm and 60 minutes of contact time), the NaOH-treated GAC could remove 91% of 4-CP compared to 60% of the HNO3 -oxidized GAC or 72% of TiO2 -coated GAC (72%). In the isotherm studies, the adsorption capacity of the NaOH-treated GAC (17.23 mg/g) was substantially higher than those of the HNO3 -treated GAC (6.32 mg/g) and TiO2 -coated GAC (15.54 mg/g). As indicated by the higher correlation coefficients, the Langmuir isotherm was found to be more applicable for the modified adsorbents than the Freundlich and the adsorption processes followed the pseudo-second-order rate.
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Keywords: Adsorption; Compounds; Hazardous Waste; Landfill Leachate; Persistent Organic Pollutants; Refractory; Surface Modification; Water Pollution Control

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 29 July 2007

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