Skip to main content

Application of Load Allocation Tools for the Development Of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLS) for Bacteria in Texas: Comparison Between Empirical and Dynamic Modelling Approaches

Buy Article:

$9.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

The development of TMDLs in Texas to address recreational use impairments has employed several different approaches. The two primary tools used in the quantification, allocation and source identification of loadings to impaired waterbodies include load duration methods (basic) and dynamic modeling with HSPF (complex). These methods both require the acceptance of assumptions concerning the interactions of bacteria with the physical environment. Each of the methods has unique strengths and weaknesses which primarily result from the inherent complexity of each approach. The use of HSPF affords a higher degree of resolution in defining specific sources within the watershed while the load duration methods only provide the sources at the most basic level of the TMDL. Examples of the application of each tool in nonurban watersheds in Texas indicate that both methods produce expected high percentages of bacteria sources arising from nonpoint sources. Both methods also result in reduction requirements of more than 50% to meet water quality standards. The selection of either approach should address uncertainty as well as consider the objectives of the TMDL and magnitude of the problem. Involvement of stakeholders will be essential in the development and application of the tools and increase the probability that the TMDL and subsequent implementation will be successful.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics


Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2007-10-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more