Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial


As the nation's sanitary sewer infrastructure continues to deteriorate, and as millions of miles of collector pipes and laterals continue to leak clean water which leads to sanitary sewer overflows, it becomes more and more important to quickly and cost-effectively determine these sources of leakage. There are a number of investigative methods that engineers, owners, and contractors have traditionally employed to determine sources of infiltration and inflow (I/I). These include smoke-testing, dye-testing, infiltration weiring, and basement inspections, just to name a few. These methods are labor-intensive and can be very costly. In addition, the methods have very specific application and, with the number of investigative methods available, it is difficult to select the appropriate method for a situation.

But what if one could take flow meter data and use it to characterize the types of I/I entering the system? What if the investigative method could be chosen without having to go through a “trialand- error process”? Malcolm Pirnie has developed a field-verified and repeatable procedure in which the sources of I/I can be determined by examining flow meter data collected during wetweather events.

This paper outlines those initial steps that are necessary to collect valid and true flow data, discusses how different sources of I/I are exhibited during wet-weather events, how these sources can be identified from flow meter data, and how to determine the appropriate investigative method to use once the types of I/I sources have been determined. The paper also includes reallife examples and success stories that will be used to support the procedures.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2007-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more