Emerging Chemical Processes to produce Value-Added Products (VAPs) from Manure and Municipal Residuals
Abstract:A number of emerging physical-chemical processes addressing future issues of disinfection and stabilization of manure and municipal residuals and destruction of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been elucidated:
Acid Treatment: The Neutralizer Process uses chlorine dioxide, nitrous acid and sulfuric acid at a pH around 2.5 and ORP between 100 to 500 mV to disinfect pathogens, stabilize waste residuals and reduce the quantity of organics present in manures and municipal residuals.
2. E-beam Irradiation: An irradiation process dating back to the 1970s and currently utilized in disinfection of foods, can be coupled with the use of oxidants to disinfect and treat reduce the quantity of organics present in municipal residuals with possible stabilization.
Modified Commercial Fertilizer Processes: These processes are now coupled with oxidants and additives to municipal sludge and manure to enhance nutrients and organics in existing standard fertilizer process dating back to the 1940s in order to disinfect, stabilize and treat refractory/waste organics.
Modified Advanced Alkaline Disinfection: Alkaline treatment of municipal sludges is blended with pozzolans and oxidants to yield a value-added alkaline product along with long term stabilization and treatment of organics in the municipal residuals and manures.
With the reduction in cost of chemicals' production and increased understanding of the synergistic impact of oxidants, acids and alkaline agents, the performance and cost of the above processes for disinfection, stabilization and (biodegradable and refractory) organics destruction will greatly improve. As a result, various companies are developing processes to address these arising concerns.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2007
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