Skip to main content


The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.

or click here to sign up for a free trial


The radical PO4 3− is used by all life forms for storing energy in the form of high energy phosphate bonds and can thus not be destructed by bacteria in activated sludge. When effluent containing phosphorus is passed to a water body, algae blooms result through photo-synthesis. 1 kg of phosphorus as P has the potential to grow 138 kg COD in the form of algae that can rot and exert a high oxygen demand (Randall, 1992). Phosphorus can be removed only by either chemical precipitation or uptake in the cells of certain phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO) occurring naturally in all activated sludge. Removal of the cells with the sludge in the final clarifiers will remove the phosphorus from the liquid stream. It is possible to reduce soluble (ortho) phosphorus to 0.03 mg/L by either chemical or biological means. The reliability of either process depends on the reliability of the mechanical plant and on the operational control. This paper will discuss operational needs for ensuring an effluent soluble phosphorus concentration of less than 0.1 mg/L. The removal of the soluble phosphorus to low levels must be accompanied by effective removal of the solids, which contain particulate phosphorus, in order to reduce the total phosphorus to the required levels of less than 0.1 mg/L.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2007

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more