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Microbiology and Biochemistry of the Nitrogen Cycle Process Applications: SHARON®, ANAMMOX, and, InNitri®

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SHARONR and InNitriR are very cost-effective treatment processes for the total removal of nitrogen components, thru nitrification/denitrification, from wastewater flow streams containing high concentrations of nitrogen. The processes are used in the treatment of municipal wastewater side streams with high ammonia concentrations to achieve high total overall nitrogen removal.

SHARONR is a high rate process for the removal of total nitrogen operating with minimal sludge retention time. Due to differences in growth rates of the bacterial species at the process design temperature (30–40°C) a selection can be made wherein the nitrite oxidizing bacteria can be washed out of the system while ammonia oxidizing bacteria are retained along with denitrifying bacteria. Using this metabolic mode of operation allows for a 25% reduction in aeration energy required for ammonia removal, a 40% reduction in the amount of BOD addition needed for denitrification, and a 33% percent reduction in sludge production. In addition since the process is accomplished in a side stream there are savings in mainstream reactor costs.

InNitriR is a high rate process for the conversion of ammonia to nitrate operating with a short sludge retention time allowable due to the temperature of the recycle stream. It converts the ammonia load in the side stream to nitrifying bacteria and nitrates. The nitrifying bacteria produced are used to seed the main stream reactors. The combined effect of this conversion and seeding of the main stream reactor is to reduce the reactor costs necessary for nitrification by 50%.

The pertinent biochemical principles of both nitrification and denitrification that apply to both processes are developed and illustrated. The process design procedures for implementing both SHARON and InNitri will be demonstrated with typical designs for wastewater plants with high strength ammonia side streams.

The process design parameters for the four SHARON plants in the Netherlands (Utrecht, Rotterdam, Zwolle, and Beverwijk) are listed and compared to actual operating data. The process design parameters for the InNitriR at Tuscon AZ is listed and compared to the actual demonstration program operating results.

SHARON® acronym Single reactor system for High activity Ammonium Removal Over Nitrate

InNitri® acronym Inexpensive Nitrification

ANAMMOX® acronym Anoxic Ammonium Oxidation

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2007-01-01

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