The Removal of Alkylphenol Ethoxylate Surfactants in Activated Sludge Systems
Abstract:US EPA has finalized federal Water Quality Criteria for nonylphenol, a biodegradation intermediate of nonylphenol ethoxylates, which are commonly used surfactants. To provide information in support of this initiative, an assessment was made of the ability of wastewater treatment plants to remove these and other alkylphenol ethoxylate (APEO) surfactants that are used widely in domestic and industrial applications. This paper, based on a monograph prepared for the Alkylphenols & Ethoxylates Research Council (Melcer et al, 2006), summarizes the results of this work and provides guidance on the factors influencing treatment plant operation and on optimum values of these factors to ensure high removals of APEOs. In general, for activated sludge systems, it was found that criteria such as high solids retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) that apply to the degradation of many complex man-made compounds also apply to APEOs; that is, a minimum SRT of approximately 10 days and a minimum HRT of 8–10 hours were required to ensure high levels of ultimate APEO degradation.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2006-01-01
More about this publication?
- Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.
WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
- Subscribe to this Title
- Membership Information
- About WEF Proceedings
- WEFTEC Conference Information
- Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
- Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites