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Determination of Fecal Coliform Loading and its Impact on River Water Quality for TMDL Development

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The reach of Red River of the North flowing through the Cities of Fargo, ND and Moorhead, MN has been impaired due to the fecal coliform. Analyses of water quality samples and rainfall data showed that high coliform concentration in the river was related to rain events, and runoffs from the urban areas are major sources of fecal coliform contamination. To determine the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) and to develop an implementation plan for water quality improvement, an extensive water quality sampling and model simulation program was carried out to calculate storm runoff flow rates, fecal coliform loads from the runoffs, and their impact on Red River water quality.

The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used to simulate the runoff flow rates and fecal coliform concentrations from different drainage areas under various rainfall conditions. Hydrographs and pollutographs generated by the model were used to determine the average daily fecal coliform load from each drainage area and the total load to the Red River. Steady state water quality model, QUAL2E, was employed for determining the impact of storm water runoff on Red River fecal coliform concentration. Event mean concentration (EMC) was used as a tool to link dynamic SWMM model to steady state QUAL2E model. The runoff sampling and modeling results were used to analyze the effect of rainfall properties on fecal coliform EMC. The study also identified sanitary sewer bypass as the potential source of high fecal coliform concentration in the River.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2175/193864706783751609

Publication date: January 1, 2006

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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