Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$9.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

Some wastewater utilities in the United States have implemented or are evaluating ballasted flocculation treatment as part of their solution to prevent combined sewer overflow (CSO) or sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) from wet weather events. Unfortunately, some such installations, both pilot-scale and full-scale, have experienced effluent foaming that appears to be caused by pass-through of surfactants.

This paper presents the findings from a study conducted to assess the potential for effluent foaming from ballasted flocculation systems installed to control CSO/SSO. The study involved the following steps:

Sampling of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent during wet weather conditions at seven publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) across the United States from spring 2004 through spring 2005.

Analyzing each influent sample for total, anionic and nonionic surfactants.

Subjecting each sample to bench-scale, ballasted flocculation treatment.

Agitating the treated effluent and observing its foaming characteristics.

Results of the study indicate that the effluent from most ballasted flocculation facilities installed for CSO/SSO control should be expected to have a significant potential to foam. The extent and magnitude of the foaming will be site specific, but the potential for foaming appears to be closely related to the influent total surfactant concentration.

Although not specifically addressed in this study, such effluent foaming may be expected from other physicochemical wastewater treatment technologies besides ballasted flocculation. Furthermore, it is anticipated that such foaming may be readily mitigated either through the addition of defoaming chemicals or through submerged outfall configurations.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2005-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more