Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$9.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

Almost daily, one hears of water shortages throughout the world. We here in the United States are no exception and even in the water “rich” areas such as the eastern US, problems are beginning to surface. In 2002, the drought in the eastern part of the United States clearly demonstrated the need for a new water resources planning paradigm. While states in the West have been dealing with drought for over a decade, many states in the East are now just beginning to adapt. Some states have begun to adopt rules that require an alternative analysis be completed for any new water or wastewater plant or any upgrade to an existing plant that insures an evaluation of the potential for use of reclaimed water. Facilities constructed to accomplish reuse objectives range from point-of-sale (satellite) reuse facilities to more centralized facilities located at existing POTWs. Either of these options would accomplish a number of objectives under such rules: conservation of a scarce resource (water) and the reuse of wastewater for productive purposes.

For the most part, reclaimed water has been used for golf course and landscape irrigation and certain industrial uses, such as cooling water supplementation. Communities are faced with a myriad of options for establishing reuse opportunities, types of treatment and possible vendors to supply reclaimed water for identified uses. This paper presents a methodology (guidelines) to assist communities and their consultants through this process.

Such a methodology must deal with a variety of factors ranging from the conduct of a market study, evaluation of various treatment options for the identified reclaimed water uses, and possible prequalification of vendors, all of which affect the ultimate design of facilities. Such techniques have been applied to a wide range of facilities. These include 0.4 mgd plant in a beach community in eastern North Carolina, a 10 mgd facility in Arizona and a 139 mgd facility in Bangkok, Thailand. The diversity of these opportunities (in terms of sheer size) appears extreme, but the structure of the approach is surprisingly the same.

Details of each of these case studies will provide the reader with an appreciation for a structured approach to developing the best solution for a community seeking to implement or expand it's water reuse options.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 2005

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more