This paper presents suggested guidelines based on the results of research on several IFAS (Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge) and MBBR (Moving Bed Bioreactor) full scale and pilot plants which were retrofitted into existing municipal activated sludge systems. The research has identified
methods to compare the operating thresholds of each of four systems: (1) activated sludge, (2) IFAS with fixed media, (3) IFAS with moving bed, and (4) MBBR. A three-step method is presented that may be used to determine the type of system (IFAS/MBBR) and the type of media to apply in the
upgrade of the wastewater treatment plant. Operating thresholds in terms of the aerobic HRT and MCRT and the MLSS levels that the wastewater treatment plant can support are presented. For comparing various systems, this paper keeps the loading and temperature constant, based primary effluent
with 250 mg/L COD and 25 mg/L TKN, and a mixed liquor temperature of 12 C.
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