Skip to main content

Bioreactor Configurations for Ex-Situ Treatment of Perchlorate: A Review

The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.

or click here to sign up for a free trial


The perchlorate anion has been detected in the drinking water of millions of people living in the U.S. At perchlorate levels equal to or greater than 1 mg/l and where the water is not immediately used for household purposes, ex-situ biotreatment has been widely applied. The principal objective of this paper was to compare the technical and economic advantages and disadvantages of various bioreactor configurations in the treatment of low and medium strength perchlorate contaminated aqueous streams. A discussion of perchlorate biotreatment principles implies the ideal bioreactor configuration for this application must be able to operate efficiently while achieving a long solids retention time (SRT), be able to be designed to promote the mechanism of physical-chemical adsorption and operate under plug-flow hydraulic conditions. To-date, the granular activated carbon (GAC) or sand media based fluidized bed reactors (FBRs) and GAC, sand or plastic media based packed bed reactors (PBRs) have been the reactor configurations most widely applied for perchlorate treatment. Only the FBR configuration has been applied commercially. Commercial scale cost information presented implies no economic advantage for the PBR relative to the FBR configuration. Full scale application information provides evidence that the FBR is a good choice for treating perchlorate contaminated aqueous streams.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2005

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more