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Water Utilities, that are considering using reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF) and electrodialysis (ED) for water treatment, should attain information concerning disposal regulations, residuals characteristics, and processing alternatives to determine methods to cost-effectively handle, treat and dispose of residuals (waste streams) from these membranes. This paper addresses residual management for RO, NF and ED, which is more challenging than management of low-pressure membrane residuals due to the high level of total dissolved solids and large volumes of residuals.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2005

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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