Skip to main content

INTEGRATED FIXED-FILM ACTIVATED SLUDGE (IFAS): THE NEW CHOICE FOR NITROGEN REMOVAL UPGRADES IN THE UNITED STATES

Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

Abstract:

Today's environment is placing more and more pressure on wastewater treatment plant owners to control forms of nitrogen in their discharges. The reasons for this pressure range from the threat of acute aquatic toxicity caused by un-ionized ammonia, to the need to control eutrophication and to protect drinking water supplies from nitrate. As a result of the Clean Water Act passed in the early 1970s, many plants in the United States were designed to remove conventional pollutants. Consequently, secondary treatment processes addressed the control of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and total suspended solids (TSS).

As the pressure to upgrade the wastewater treatment facilities to nitrogen control mounts, municipal utilities and industrial waste treaters are faced with the need for substantial capital improvements to implement biological control measures. Consequently, the industry is faced with the questions of:



What processes/technologies are available that can nitrify or nitrify and denitrify?


Which technology is most inexpensive, both to construct and to operate, and how readily can it be incorporated into the current operation?


How reliable are the candidate technologies/processes?


Will nitrogen control present a complicated operating challenge?


Although many options are available, one process is emerging as a viable candidate for upgrading existing plants: the integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process. This paper explains what it is, why it is a viable option, describes its development, presents performance information from pilot and full-scale facilities, and presents information on its cost.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2175/193864704784147214

Publication date: 2004-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more