AN ASSESSMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING ACTIVITY CHANGES IN WATER RECLAMATION SYSTEMS THROUGH THE USE OF BIOASSAYS AND CHEMICAL MEASUREMENTS
Abstract:The objective of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in water reclamation systems with bioassays and chemical measurements. A total of seven full-scale water reclamation facilities employing different unit operations and two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors were examined. Findings of this study imply that endocrine disrupting activity in primary effluent is mainly caused by steroidal hormones and to a lesser extent by synthetic chemicals such as bisphenol A, nonylphenol, and octylphenol. During secondary treatment, steroidal hormones were removed to a higher degree than nonylphenol, whereas bisphenol A and octylphenol were entirely removed. The total estrogenic activity was removed by an average of 96 percent. The remaining concentrations of some steroids in secondary effluents still had the potential to cause an endocrine disrupting effect in the human breast cell cancer assay. For the majority of facilities the remaining activity is likely attributed to residual concentrations of steroidal compounds.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2004-01-01
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