Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$9.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

After the completion of the Phase II CSO control improvements, the City of Richmond, Virginia conducted a re-evaluation study on its original 1988 CSO Long Term Control Plan (LTCP). The purpose of the study was to reassess the last phase of the original LTCP in light of EPA's 1994 National CSO Control Policy and state-of-the-art technologies. The study identified that after the completion of the Phase II CSO controls approximately 79% of the entire CSO volume is discharged through the City's largest CSO outfall, Shockoe Creek, at a peak flow rate of 5,000 MGD. The study acknowledged that reliable disinfection of such a large flow rate would be challenging and that inactivation efficiencies greater than 80% may not be feasible or practical. The receiving water quality model showed that an 80% reduction of bacteriological loading would result in a significant improvement in water quality of the James River. The study recommended that a comprehensive disinfection pilot study be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of existing technologies in achieving 80% or possibly higher disinfection efficiency at the Shockoe outfall.

Two disinfection technologies, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and chlorination/dechlorination, were evaluated during this disinfection study. This paper presents the findings from the UV disinfection pilot study conducted between April 2003 and April 2004. The UV pilot study was conducted on raw CSO with a wide range of water quality characteristics. UVT varied from 20 to 61%, and TSS ranged from 10 to123 mg/L. Influent fecal coliform concentration was between 230,000 and 6,130,000 cfu/100 mL, and influent E. coli concentration varied from 86,700 to 2,100,000 cfu/100mL. The 12-month UV disinfection pilot study demonstrated that UV appears to be a feasible technology for disinfection of Shockoe CSOs with 80% efficiency. Multivariable regression models are being finalized to predict the delivered UV dose and/or log reduction in the reactor. The models will determine the approximate number of UV lamps required given target disinfection efficiency (or delivered dose), flow rate, power setting, and water quality (UVT).
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2004-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more