EFFECTIVENESS OF SECONDARY EFFLUENT FILTRATION FOR REMOVAL OF BACTERIA, ENTEROVIRUSES, AND PROTOZOAN PATHOGENS IN WASTEWATER RECLAMATION FACILITIES
A Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) project was conducted to evaluate the reduction of pathogens, indicator bacteria and alternative indicators through wastewater treatment and reclamation processes. Each of six full-scale wastewater reclamation facilities were sampled a minimum of five times at approximately bimonthly intervals. At each facility, the concentrations of coliforms, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, coliphage, enterovirus, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were evaluated in the untreated wastewater, and downstream of biological treatment, filtration, and disinfection. Influent samples were collected under peak flow conditions and downstream samples were collected based on the hydraulic retention time of each facility. Pathogen removal was evaluated through each treatment step. This paper is focused on a comparison of full-scale filtration. The filters tested included cloth filters, monomedium shallow or deep bed filters, and dual medium filters. Removal of indicators and pathogens through filtration varied with filter design, depth, chemical addition practices, and backwashing strategies.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2004-01-01
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