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Our previous study revealed the prevalence of feminization of wild common carp in the Japanese rivers in terms of vitellogenesis and testicular abnormality. The vitellogenesis in the wild male carp occurs more frequently than the data on our exposure experiment of the male carp fed estrogen-free food to secondary effluent. This suggests the importance of food-web route in river waters. However, knowledge is limited on how extent the concerned estrogen-like compounds accumulate in food organisms. Therefore, to clarify the bioaccumulation of estrogen-like compounds in their foods, estrogens, nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO), nonylphenol ethoxy acetic acids (NPEC) and estrogenic activity in water, sediment, POM, periphytons, specific mayflies (Hydropryche spp. and Stenopsyche marmorata), specific caddisflies (Perlinae spp.) and the other benthic invertebrates were measured in the Tama River where feminization of fish is highly concerned due to STP discharge.

Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) defined in this paper is a ratio of the concentration of a target compound in the biota to that of water. Condensation factor (CF) of the sediment and the organic matter is also similarly defined. BAF of NP showed 1000 to some hundreds for periphytons, Hydropryche spp. and Stenopsyche marmorata, and slightly decreased for Perlinae spp. that are higher trophic stage. NP1 to 3EO indicated the similar tendency although their BAFs are slightly smaller than that of NP. BAFs tend to decrease towards higher trophic level.

BAFs of E1 were some hundreds for Hydropryche spp., Stenopsyche marmorata, and Perlinae spp., and were slightly lower than those of NP. Although Kows of E1 and E2 are almost same, but BAFs of E2 were a few tens and were lower than those of E1, which suggests the difference of their biodegradability. Further, the estrogenic activity accumulated in the benthic invertebrates more than estrogens, NP, NPEO and NPEC in this study. Benthic invertebrates may contain endogenous steroid hormones, but this alone cannot explain the increase in the estrogenic activities of the benthic invertebrates in the reaches receiving STP discharge than those not receiving STP discharge. We can confirm the importance of exposure route via food-web besides water itself on estrogen-like compounds in the river environment particular for carp because they tend to eat organic matters and lower trophic biota such as periphytons and invertebrates.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2004-01-01

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