Skip to main content


The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.

or click here to sign up for a free trial


This paper presents applications of the Low Impact Feasibility Evaluation (LIFE™) model, a model developed by CH2M HILL from basic hydrologic principles to simulate Low Impact Development (LID) hydrology. The LIFE™ model is a continuous-simulation model, based primarily on physical processes that occur with bioretention facilities, vegetated swales, green roofs, and infiltration devices, as well as the effects of site fingerprinting and soil compaction. The LIFE™ model accounts for runoff generation from all categories of land cover including roadways, landscaping, and buildings over a variety of land uses and soil types, for new development and re-development. The model allows for precise definition of planning and engineering measures implemented to control stormwater; for example disturbance avoidance, soil amendment, pavement replacement, and street narrowing. In addition, the model includes an evolutionary optimizer for maximization of project benefits.

The LIFE™ model has been applied in a number of projects in the US and Canada. This paper describes four applications in Washington State, Virginia, North Carolina, and British Columbia. The applications cover a range of geographical locations, soil types, land uses, and stormwater management objectives, including stream protection, water quality improvement, combined sewer overflow (CSO) reduction, rainwater reuse, and sustainable land development.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2004

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Partial Open Access Content
Partial Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more