SULFIDE AND ODOR CONTROL AT NAVAL STATION EVERETT
Abstract:United States Naval Station (NAVSTA) Everett, Washington, discharges wastewater to the City of Everett's wastewater collection system. The station is homeport to the USS Abraham Lincoln aircraft carrier, four destroyers, and two frigates. Wastewater must be quickly offloaded to the Everett system from the incoming fleet with its complement of several thousand personnel. As a result, some facilities serving the base experience a wide variation in historical instantaneous wastewater flow rates (from as low as 8 gallons per minute (gpm) up to 1,900 gpm). Furthermore, because the wastewater from the ships' holding tanks may have been held there for up to four days and gone septic, the sulfide concentration in the station's wastewater varies widely.
In the summer of 1999, a flurry of wastewater odor complaints from base personnel, neighbors, and the City of Everett's wastewater department personnel prompted a review of the existing odor control measures and an evaluation of alternative odor control systems and strategies.
Three pump stations deliver NAVSTA wastewater to a master pump station, which in turn pumps into the City of Everett's collection system. The master pump station has a capacity of 1,100 gallons per minute (gpm). The force main is 12 inches in diameter, 4,300 feet long. The master pump station employs an activated carbon adsorber to limit odor discharges. In addition, two proprietary chemicals were typically injected into the master pump station's wet well to provide additional odor control.
Historical data collected from various Navy vessels showed an average 4.9 milligrams per liter (mg/L) total sulfide concentration after four days storage (typically the maximum time between ocean discharge and home port), and a peak of 14.8 mg/L. pH ranged from 5.8 to 7.1.
Sampling was performed at the master pump station at a relatively low flow of 80 gpm. Wet well concentrations averaged 2.8 mg/L total sulfide, 2.1 mg/L dissolved sulfide, moderately high levels. Modeling showed that when odor-generating parameters are at maximum values, total sulfide generation in the force main could reach 6 mg/L.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2004
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