Facing the Challenge of Water Shortage and Water Quality Pollution in China: Integrated Watershed Management and Ecosystem Restoration
Authors: Zhang, Harry X.; Zhang, Qishun
Source: Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, WEFTEC 2003: Session 11 through Session 20 , pp. 499-513(15)
Publisher: Water Environment Federation
Abstract:With continued economic development, population growth and due to uneven distribution of natural resources across the country, water resources is becoming one of the key focus during the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2001-2005) and nation's sustainable development strategy over next ten years. In particular, water shortage and water quality pollution are two most challenging water issues in China. Even with broad-based effective water conservation plan and pollution control enhancement, water demands for agricultural, municipal and industrial uses in North China still exceed available water supply capacity. South-North Water Diversion is the largest and most promising project at all time for the water industry in China, expecting to benefit 300 million people. In light of severe water quality deterioration in major rivers, lakes and coastal waterbodies, this paper further introduced newly amended Water Law and several key case studies such as Three Gorges, Gulf of Bohai and City of Shenzhen. Brief comparison of USEPA's TMDL program and China SEPA's current TAC program reveals the gap on environmental data infrastructure and its potential impact on environmental management in China. Finally, this paper highlights the promise in future implementing ambient Water Quality-Based Management approach in China, by reiterating benefits using integrated watershed approach, pollution control over both point and nonpoint sources, and ecosystem restoration.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2003
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