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Once limited to sites with extreme water deficits or prohibitive effluent disposal constraints, water reclamation and reuse has become a strategic water management option for fast-growing communities worldwide. Thanks to public acceptance, health risk protection, and effective regulations, nonpotable applications of reclaimed water are well established. Substantial technical expertise and operational experience has been gained over the past 30 years. This shared “state-of-the-art” knowledge notwithstanding, agencies considering nonpotable water reuse are still faced with highly site-specific, and relatively uncharted, institutional, legal, and liability issues inherent to reclaimed water service, which can impair program implementation., Uncertainties affecting reclaimed water demands and revenues make it difficult to predict and optimize the economic and financial performance of projects, in particular towards the recovery of dual distribution investments. To promote optimal planning of nonpotable reuse projects, the Water Environment Research Foundation sponsored an international review of nonpotable reuse planning and management experiences, including a management survey of 65 projects (of which 40 projects in the US). While confirming the project-specific nature of management solutions, the study affords insights into proven approaches to address typical institutional, economic, financial, and public outreach issues.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2003

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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