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Full-Scale Step-Feed Nutrient Removal Systems: A Comparison between Theory and Reality

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This paper reviews seven full-scale step-feed biological nutrient removal systems—some removing nitrogen and others both nitrogen and phosphorus. The objective is to compare the theoretical benefits of such systems with their actual operation. The predicted benefits, including reduced bioreactor volume or increased process capacity, reduced pumping requirements, more robust nitrification performance, and the flexibility to tune (or de-tune) nitrification efficiency, were verified in a number of full-scale systems.

Equations are also presented that may be used in the prediction of step-feed benefits.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2003

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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