NDMA FORMATION AND FATE DURING WASTEWATER TREATMENT: CURRENT AND FUTURE CHALLENGES OF WATER REUSE
N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a potent carcinogen that can form within treatment plant during disinfection processes (chlorination or chloramination), particularly during wastewater treatment. California wastewater agencies practicing indirect water reuse are required to meet the 2002 California Action Level of 10 ng/L prior to re-injection. In addition, NDMA influent concentrations have been found to exceed 1000 ng/L at many treatment plants in California and elsewhere. Considerable research is therefore needed to understand NDMA precursors and control methods to better enable water reuse facilities to meet stringent water quality objectives for NDMA. In a two-year applied research study sponsored by the WateReuse Foundation, a diverse team of consultants, university researchers and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) are currently investigating the effects of residential and industrial precursors on treatment plant influent concentrations, the effects of conventional and advanced treatment processes on NDMA formation and removal, as well as the cost and performance of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and advanced oxidation (UV/H2O2) processes on NDMA destruction. The objectives of this study are summarized in this manuscript, and preliminary findings are also presented.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2003-01-01
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