Skip to main content


The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.

or click here to sign up for a free trial


Although water recycling has been practiced successfully in Hawaii for over 70 years, the fate of constituents applied over unconfined aquifers has been questioned. Water recycling through irrigation has demonstrated the multiple benefits of wastewater reuse including a reduction of the demand on potable aquifer sources and the beneficial reuse of water and nutrients. The preferred reuse method under study on Oahu is irrigation, because c urrent and past water recycling projects utilize reclaimed water on golf courses and agricultural land. The Honolulu Board of Water Supply (HBWS) has taken a cautious approach toward allowing recycled water use over potable water aquifers because of concerns over degrading or contaminating the underlying, high-quality groundwater. HBWS has concerns regarding the migration of constituents, including pesticides and trace organics. As a result, HBWS has developed a project to investigate potential impacts of irrigation with recycled water in Central Oahu. The purpose of the project is to determine the level of protection of water quality that exists when recycled water is used for crop or turf irrigation.

The project was initiated with a literature review and research plan in December 2000. The current status of the project is described including a detailed water quality characterization of recycled water and alternative irrigation water sources. Preliminary results from an 18 month field study are reported in which the percolate water quality from plots irrigated with recycled water is compared to the percolate from plots irrigated with control groundwater.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2003

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more