A SURVEY OF ADVANCED MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN WATER REUSE PROJECTS
Water reuse is playing an important role in water resources management. One of the major factors leading to the rapid increase of water reuse projects is the advances in membrane treatment technologies and their dramatic cost reduction. Major types of membrane technologies include microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis/ electrodialysis reversal. This paper presents a survey of the major membrane technologies by various vendors and their applications in wastewater reclamation and reuse projects throughout the world, and describes several major wastewater reclamation projects using integrated membrane systems. It appears that wastewater reclamation technologies are well established, and advances in membrane technologies play a key role in the implementation of water reuse projects. However, the selection of specific technologies for each application will depend on wastewater characteristics and cost evaluation. In most cases, pilot testing prior to implementation is recommended.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2003-01-01
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