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“Optimization of Phosphorus Removal to below 0.5 mg/l Levels with Two Stage Chemical Addition”

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Dozens of wastewater treatment plants in the US have an enforceable total phosphorus effluent limit of less than 0.5 mg/l, with some plants facing a limit of 0.1 mg/l or less. Whenever chemical addition is used as the treatment method of choice, or as a back-up for biological phosphorus removal, it is a common practice to add the chemical to the activated sludge train, most frequently to the aeration basin effluent. For stringent phosphorus limits, such as below 0.5 mg/l, chemical addition is required as a polishing step. Under this study, a series of jar tests aimed at optimization of chemical addition for phosphorus removal to low levels was performed on samples collected from several wastewater treatment plants. Of particular interest were comparison of alum and ferric in removing residual phosphorus to low levels and effect of staged (multipoint) chemical addition on its effectiveness.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2003

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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