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The complete report on this national survey, including copies of the survey questionnaire and raw data, is available in the final WERF biosolids public perception and participation project report (WERF project #00-PUM-5), available from WERF and/or the Water Environment Federation.

The nation's dependence on effective wastewater treatment requires an increasing capacity for the management of biosolids. The amount of municipal sewage sludge generated annually continues to rise. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999) estimates that more than seven (7) million dry tons of sewage sludge are generated each year, compared with four and one half (4.5) million dry tons in 1972, and that U.S. municipalities will produce more than eight (8) million dry tons annually by the year 2010. Treated and tested sewage sludges that are used as fertilizers and/or soil amendments are known as biosolids.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2003

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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