Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$9.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

Wastewater treatment requirements are becoming more restrictive, and Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) are increasingly finding themselves faced with the need to evaluate the costs and performance of new tertiary and advanced wastewater treatment processes in order to assess attainability with future federal, state and local regulatory requirements.

These regulatory concerns include the reduction of heavy metals and trace organics to meet the new National Toxics Rule (NTR) requirements, and the reduction of forms of nitrogen and phosphorous to meet the national Nutrient Criteria. Also, the U.S. EPA Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program has identified over 300,000 river and shore miles, and over 5 million acres of lakes in the U.S. that do not met water quality objectives (Brady, D. Chief of Watershed Branch, U.S. EPA; Presentation to NRC Committee, January 25, 2001). The TMDL program findings add additional pressure to POTWs to evaluate new and emerging wastewater treatment technologies to reduce both conventional and nonconventional pollutants.

This paper summarizes the latest advanced/tertiary wastewater treatment technologies available; and their associated capital costs, operations and maintenance (O&M) costs, and pollutant reduction performance. This evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment technologies was recently developed for some of the largest wastewater agencies discharging to some of the most sensitive receiving waters in the Western United States, including Sacramento, CA., and the Cities of Reno and Sparks, NV.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2002-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more