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The King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks is interested in developing opportunities for wastewater reclamation throughout its service area. To facilitate this initiative, a reuse demonstration project was conducted to evaluate and pilot test emerging technologies that could meet the County's goals for effluent water quality, operability, and cost.

Twelve different reuse applications were identified, ranging from basic Class A reuse to stream augmentation and lake discharge, the latter requiring advanced wastewater treatment. Therefore, the water quality goals to be met by a satellite treatment plant can range widely. The baseline process must meet Class A water quality standards for oxidation-filtration-disinfection. Other reuse applications would require various levels of nutrient, metals, organics, and turbidity removal.

Following an in-depth screening process, two treatment trains were selected for testing in a ninemonth pilot test. One uses a Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) and the other a Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater oxidation. Other emerging technologies investigated for its small footprint and enhanced performance include fuzzy filter and ballasted flocculation (Actiflo and Densadeg) for primary treatment, fuzzy filter and microfiltration for effluent filtration, and reverse osmosis for advanced treatment.

Eleven BAF based treatment trains and four MBR based treatment trains were developed. Some of these trains include enhanced treatment by adding chemicals or additional treatment with processes not tested during the pilot study. A total of 19 different treatment trains are presented. These can meet the treatment objectives for all 12 reuse applications. In some cases, a given treatment option can meet more than one objective; in other cases enhanced treatment can expand the reuse opportunities.

The ultimate selection of the treatment train will depend on the objectives at the specific satellite site, the available space, and the potential current or future reuse opportunities.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2002

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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