Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$9.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

Between 1996 and 1998, Witco Corporation (now Crompton Corporation), Environmental Resources Management (“ERM”), Fahrenthold & Associates and Terra Constructors successfully developed and implemented an innovative, and now patented, in situ chemical oxidation treatment technique for carbon disulfide (CS2) impacted soils at the Halby Chemical Superfund Site located in Delaware (“Site”). The project involved technology research and development, laboratory and field treatability testing, and full-scale implementation.

The literature suggested that chemical oxidation of CS2 might be viable, although industry experience was limited, especially with high concentrations and large soil volumes, and the reaction could be potentially explosive. Nonetheless, in situ chemical oxidation was pursued as a relatively safe, aggressive and cost-effective approach compared to other alternatives. Laboratory treatability testing was performed to evaluate the efficacy of peroxide-based oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide, sodium percarbonate, and sodium perborate. The treatability testing demonstrated that all three peroxidants could provide 99+% CS2 removal; however, sodium percarbonate was selected for field pilot testing based on ease of application, controlled reaction kinetics, reaction byproducts, cost, and treated soil consistency.

Two field pilots (Phases I and II) were conducted to verify the results of laboratory testing. Phase I was conducted using a low-pressure direct injection unit, selected as a less intrusive delivery system. The results of the Phase I pilot showed limited CS2 reduction, which was believed to be caused by the system's inability to deliver sufficient oxidant to the entire soil mass. Phase II was conducted using a Single Auger Mixing (SAM) unit, a six-foot diameter crane-mounted soil auger, which was selected as a more aggressive application method. Phase II demonstrated consistent 99+% removal of CS2 under actual field conditions. Based on these results, full-scale treatment using the SAM unit was initiated.

Full-scale treatment was completed in approximately 20 weeks. Over 10,000 cubic yards of soil, with up to 16% CS2, were successfully treated to an average CS2 concentration of approximately 200 mg/kg (1/5 the cleanup goal). The treatment operations were completed safely, including over 10,000 man-hours without a health or safety incident. The cost of this project, including development, field treatability testing and full-scale treatment, was an order of magnitude less than excavation/off-site disposal, and approximately 1/2 to 1/3 the cost of other technologies considered.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Data/Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2002-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more