Demonstration of Copper and Nickel Removal Technologies to Protect San Francisco Bay
This paper documents the activities, results, and conclusions from pilot testing of copper and nickel removal technologies for the proposed City of Hayward Advanced Water Treatment Plant (AWTP). The AWTP will include microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO) treatment to produce recycled water for use in the planned Russell City Energy Center (RCEC). Due to strict limitations on copper and nickel discharges, the AWTP will also include systems for removing copper and nickel from backwash and concentrate streams produced by the MF and RO systems, respectively.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2002-01-01
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