Skip to main content

Demonstration of Copper and Nickel Removal Technologies to Protect San Francisco Bay

Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)


This paper documents the activities, results, and conclusions from pilot testing of copper and nickel removal technologies for the proposed City of Hayward Advanced Water Treatment Plant (AWTP). The AWTP will include microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO) treatment to produce recycled water for use in the planned Russell City Energy Center (RCEC). Due to strict limitations on copper and nickel discharges, the AWTP will also include systems for removing copper and nickel from backwash and concentrate streams produced by the MF and RO systems, respectively.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2002

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more