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Vivianite Precipitation: Causes, Prevention and Removal

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Vivianite, Fe3(PO4)2, also known as ferrous phosphate, is a blue mineral precipitate which forms in systems where iron salts are added. Iron salts are used in wastewater treatment as a coagulant or to help control orthophosphate (PO4 3−). Orthophosphate is an important ion in wastewater treatment and anaerobic digestion. Struvite (MgNH4PO4•6H2O) control also requires ferric chloride (FeCl3) or other iron salt addition.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2002

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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