Introduction Biological treatment is the most common process used to treat organic-containing wastewaters. However, a large number of xenobiotic compounds can persist in the biological systems passing through the systems without any transformation. Furthermore, they may upset the
biological process though toxicity to the microorganisms. The discharge of such compounds to municipal or industrial systems that use biological systems is often restricted or prohibited. For example, the latest Toxic Release Inventory for California indicates that the Chemical Industry, which
is the largest contributor to the toxic waste discharge in the State, could discharge only about 47% of the waste to the POTWs and treat about 1% in on-site industrial wastewater facilities. The remaining waste is therefore transported, and treated as “hazardous waste“,
and finally disposed through costly and potentially liable alternatives such as underground injection and offsite land disposal.
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