Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial


Stormwater BMPs are becoming commonly used throughout the United States. One of the questions facing design engineers and developers is what is the optimum practice to select for a particular watershed size, land cost, and target pollutant. Pollutant removal efficiencies using regional data were collected to determine median pollutant removal rates for four different BMPs: wet ponds, stormwater wetlands, sand filters, and bioretention areas. The target pollutants studied are TSS, TP, and NO3 . Construction and maintenance costs were found for over 40 BMPs in North Carolina. A simple tool is presented that links the removal efficiencies of BMPs to their associated costs (land, maintenance, and construction). The analysis finds that (1) bio-retention is most often the most cost-effective BMP for small mostly impermeable watersheds, (2) the cost-effectiveness of stormwater wetlands and wet ponds are comparable when including land and opportunity costs, and (3) economies of scale exist.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2002-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free ContentFree content
  • Partial Free ContentPartial Free content
  • New ContentNew content
  • Open Access ContentOpen access content
  • Partial Open Access ContentPartial Open access content
  • Subscribed ContentSubscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed ContentPartial Subscribed content
  • Free Trial ContentFree trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more