STORMWATER BMP COST – EFFECTIVENESS RELATIONSHIPS FOR NORTH CAROLINA
Stormwater BMPs are becoming commonly used throughout the United States. One of the questions facing design engineers and developers is what is the optimum practice to select for a particular watershed size, land cost, and target pollutant. Pollutant removal efficiencies using regional data were collected to determine median pollutant removal rates for four different BMPs: wet ponds, stormwater wetlands, sand filters, and bioretention areas. The target pollutants studied are TSS, TP, and NO3 −. Construction and maintenance costs were found for over 40 BMPs in North Carolina. A simple tool is presented that links the removal efficiencies of BMPs to their associated costs (land, maintenance, and construction). The analysis finds that (1) bio-retention is most often the most cost-effective BMP for small mostly impermeable watersheds, (2) the cost-effectiveness of stormwater wetlands and wet ponds are comparable when including land and opportunity costs, and (3) economies of scale exist.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2002-01-01
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