URBAN CONCRETE CHANNELS – THE END OF AN ERA
The streams of the Milwaukee, Wisconsin area have historically been managed like those of many urban regions in America – more as an environmental nuisance and hazard than a vital ecological resource. This paper describes the processes and projects in place to change this value system in the Milwaukee metropolitan area. During the 1990s, the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (District) invested in an environmentally responsible system-wide watershed planning program to address urban flooding problems and to build planning tools to prevent future problems. This 300 million program also provides an opportunity to rebuild some of the flood relief techniques of the past. Urban channels can be rehabilitated to both accommodate flood flows and provide an environmental stream corridor. In this spirit the District has three completed or are implementing ongoing urban channel rehabilitation projects and several programs are underway to reduce flooding while supporting environmentally sustainable development. This paper describes these programs, with particular details provided on the District's evaluation and selection of a monitoring tool for benchmarking their progress.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2002-01-01
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