Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial

In-stream management uses devices and techniques for treatment and flow management directly within control structures and receiving waters. One challenge facing watershed management is the large volumes of sediments already stored in receiving waters. When coupled with poor circulation, these conditions result in hypoxic events that impede benefits from upland restoration efforts. From September 2000 to August 2001, three InStreem™ water units were installed in Wilson Bay, North Carolina, USA to enhance circulation as part of a multi-phase effort to restore Wilson Bay. Prior to InStreem™, bay sediments supported macroinvertebrates only in the cooler months of the year. During the late spring to fall, anoxic conditions at the bottom of the bay were widespread as indicated by the lack of benthos, black surficial sediments, and a septic smell. The bay experienced extended periods of hypoxia, and currents ranged from 2 cm/s at the bay mouth to <0.3 cm/s in the N and NE sectors of the bay. After InStreem™, surficial sediments changed from black to a light brown color and the septic smell was eliminated. Apparent redox potential discontinuity (RPD) layer depth increased from zero to several millimeters within one month of InStreem™ operation. Current direction was reversed during falling tide conditions, increasing to 3 cm/s at the bay mouth and to 2–4 cm/s in the N and NE sectors. In August 2001, the methodology changed to benthos evaluation when RPD layers at most sites were too complex for visual tabulation. Benthos in the areas of enhanced flow were comparable to the positive control areas – areas with natural flow. With induced circulation and mixing, hypoxic events (12- hour averages of dissolved oxygen near the bottom) decreased nearly three-fold. The results of this study indicate that in-stream water management offers an effective addition to integrated watershed management.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Data/Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2002-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more