Factors influencing pathogen removal in wastewater reclamation and reuse facilities
Pathogen removal was evaluated at three wastewater reclamation facilities that produce reclaimed water for municipal applications. At each facility, the concentrations of coliforms, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, coliphage, enterovirus, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were evaluated in the untreated wastewater, and downstream of biological treatment, filtration, and disinfection. Influent samples were collected under peak flow conditions and downstream samples were collected based on the hydraulic retention time of each facility. Pathogen removal was evaluated through each treatment step. In general, the reduction of bacteria, viruses, and protozoan pathogens was somewhat species specific. Limited pathogen reduction occurred through biological treatment, except in the facility that practices biological nutrient removal. Removal through filtration varied with filter design with highest efficiency associated with the deep bed dual media filters. In all cases, the disinfection process was adequate for destruction of bacteria, however, chloraminated effluents had some residual levels of viruses and protozoa.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2002-01-01
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