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This paper presents United Utilities and Montgomery Watson's experience in the design and operation of advanced fixed film processes for nitrification. The paper discusses the results gained from pilot plant trials and how these were used in the design of full-scale installations.

Four fixed film processes are compared in terms of ammonia, BOD and hydraulic loading rates and their ability to meet stringent BOD and ammonia standards, in a temperate climate. Each process is discussed in terms of it's process limitations and design considerations which must be considered during the design of these “bolt on” tertiary processes.

All four processes have their own niche and this is a function of the influent concentration (BOD, SS and ammonia), footprint, target final effluent standard and size of works. This paper gives some guidance to these niches, although whole life cost analysis should be used to determine the preferred solution.

Table 1 is essentially a summary of the data contained in this paper, it should be noted that these design loadings are associated with the achievement of a compliant 95%ile ammonia spot standard of 2mg/l.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2001-01-01

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