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This paper presents a historical summary of the experience with microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO)membranes when applied to water reclamation. This is a rapidly growing field with more than 20 membrane-based water reclamation facilities in the United States having a combined capacity greater than 70 mgd (265,000 m3/d). Data on all of these facilities are presented including location, capacity, start date, membrane type,use of reclaimed water, and, for some cases, the finished water quality. Topics discussed include history, levelof treatment, pretreatment requirements, public acceptance and perceived safety, municipal-industrial cooperation, residuals disposal, cleaning and longterm maintenance, and costs. This paper would be of particular interest to utilities, regulatory agencies, and interested citizens considering the implementation of membrane technologyfor water reclamation.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2001-01-01

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