A LONG-TERM MONITORING STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF PULP AND PAPER MILL EFFLUENTS
in 1997. The study, involving four different U.S. pulp and paper mill effluent receiving waters, includes the Leaf River in Mississippi, Codorus Creek in Pennsylvania, and the McKenzie and Willamette Rivers in Oregon. The matrix of study locations includes effluents from both bleached and unbleached kraft mills, both coldwater and warmwater streams, and average effluent concentrations ranging from <1% v/v to 20% v/v. This paper provides a description of the study locations and the scope and framework and experimental design of the monitoring program. One goal the study is to establish a monitoring program sufficient to identify potential effluent effects within the context of long-term natural temporal variability over an upstream/downstream gradient from the point of effluent discharge. The long-term element of the LTRWS also provides an opportunity to assess the effects of future mill process changes on effluent quality since such changes are likely to occur over the lifetime of the study. A detailed in-stream monitoring program of the biological community may also serve as an early warning indicator of effluent effects that might not otherwise be known from more conventional shortterm monitoring programs, or from programs that focus on single components of the aquatic ecosystem. As will be reported, monitoring in the LTRWS includes multiple sampling periods each year to assess the health of periphyton, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. These instream parameters are integrated with additional monitoring parameters that include effluent bioassays, streamside mesocosm studies and the chemical characterization of both effluent and river water. The inclusion of tributary streams adjacent to the study areas provides an opportunity to place into context potential water-quality effects from effluent discharges with those from other activities in the watershed. The LTRWS also provides an opportunity to assess the relative merits of various rapid bioassessment procedures being developed by EPA and several states in assessing aquatic community health.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2001-01-01
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