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Increasing population and water use are placing increasing pressures on water resources worldwide. Research in the UK has shown that approximately 30% of potable water supplied to domestic properties is used for toilet flushing. Significant savings on the potable resource can be made if alternative sources are used where potable quality is not required.

The objective of the study has been to investigate a range of process technologies to assess their suitability for the treatment of different water sources for non-potable re-use. To meet this objective a large scale water reclamation evaluation and demonstration facility has been constructed on the site of the Millennium Dome, a major themed exhibition in London, UK. Reclaimed water from 3 sources is recycled to the washrooms for flushing the 600 WC's and urinals on site.

Greywater, rainwater and poor quality groundwater were treated by a combination of processes including biological oxidation, constructed wetlands, chemical oxidation, adsorption, Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis. The plant was operated from January 1st to December 31st, 2000. Chemical and bacteriological results for each process are presented and discussed.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2001

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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