LEGAL STANDARDS FOR MUNICIPAL SEWAGE PLANT BIOSOLIDS DISINFECTION: APPLICATION TO PRODUCTION OF CLASS A EXCEPTIONAL QUALITY
Beneficially using the biosolids that result from digestion of municipal wastewater sludge provides a more complex challenge for governmental and private organizations than disposal methods such as landfilling, incineration, or the upcoming new idea of deep-well injection. The desire to return organic material and nutrients to soils conflicts with the desire to dispose of sludge containing pathogens and toxins. Governmental agencies in both the United States and Europe seek to balance the potential benefits with the costs of reducing the risks by regulating the levels of pathogens and toxins that may be present in biosolids, and specifying how biosolids are to be used. For historical, demographic, and geographic reasons, there are a number of significant differences between the regulations issued by the European Economic Community (EEC), now enlarged and strengthened into the European Union (EU) and those issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). This discussion summarizes aspects of the 1993 USEPA sludge regulation, the 1986 EEC sludge directive, and the latest draft of an EU working document summarizing material for possible inclusion in a new EU sludge directive. A final section on additional conflicts surrounding biosolids reuse leads to the conclusion that additional public education is needed, as well as institutional changes like insurance for producers. In addition, where it is economically feasible, disposal methods such as incineration play an important role, so successful demonstration of a new disposal method like deep well injection may lead to widespread adoption in areas with suitable geological formations.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2001-01-01
More about this publication?
- Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation includes access to most papers presented at the annual WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) and other conferences held since 2000. Subscription access begins 12 months after the event and is valid for 12 months from month of purchase. A subscription to the Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is included in Water Environment Federation (WEF) membership.
WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access. Access begins 12 months after the conference or event
- Subscribe to this Title
- Membership Information
- About WEF Proceedings
- WEFTEC Conference Information
- Learn about the many other WEF member benefits and join today
- Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites