Skip to main content


The full text article is not available for purchase.

The publisher only permits individual articles to be downloaded by subscribers.

or click here to sign up for a free trial


Scotland, in particular the North of Scotland Water Authority (NoSWA), have led the way in implementing Design, Build, Finance and Operate (DBFO) contracts in recent years. They have let four DBFO schemes totalling 420m in capital value and appointed Catchment as Concessionaire for three of these. A number of Design Build Operate (DBO) contracts are now being procured in North America, which adopt many of the same principles as DBFO. This paper examines the challenges and lessons learned by both NoSWA and by Catchment in the implementation of DBFO, focusing on the most recent project, the Moray Wastewater Scheme. This experience will offer insights into the challenges and successes of DBFO, as experienced in Moray, to the North American water industry.

The paper explains the drivers behind Scotland's DBFO experience, and the drivers for the Moray Wastewater Scheme in particular. It describes the many parties involved in the process and their relationships. If describes project challenges: risk allocation, liability best value and innovation. It then examines Customer challenges: NoSWA's fears, start-up costs, bid evaluation, performance specification, managing changes and partnering. Contractor challenges are also examined: tunneling risk, marine modeling to achieve ‘less-build’ solution, constructability, working in partnership with third parties including permitting bodies and environmental regulator, SEPA and finally challenging traditional design approach through working with the Operator.

It offers further DBFO issues for discussion and draws conclusions about the Moray project and the DBFO process.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2001

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Partial Open Access Content
Partial Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more