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A Groundwater Denitrification Facility (GDF) utilizing Biofor™ technology was constructed and started-up in February, 1999 to reduce total nitrogen in the groundwater to levels acceptable for discharge into the ocean. Biofor™ is a submerged biological filter comprised of a fixed, dense granular bed through which influent wastewater flows in the upward direction. The start-up period for a biological treatment process requires that the operator initiate growth, begin treatment, and subsequently stabilize the process. Understanding that influent groundwater was low in organic carbon and phosphorus, methanol and phosphorus acid solutions were added to sustain biological growth. Backwash was seldom conducted during the first weeks of start-up because the objective was to cultivate biomass. As the denitrification process matured, more frequent backwash episodes were required. The system was originally approved to discharge backwash waste containing high suspended solids or BOD5, however, concentrations of both were increasing in the effluent due to frequent backwash. Modification of the system by separating the treated effluent and backwash wastewater became necessary to guarantee the effluent TSS and BOD5 discharge limits to be met.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: January 1, 2001

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  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

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