The production of biosolids continues to increase around the world due to the achievement of enhanced wastewater treatment efficiencies and construction of more and more wastewater treatment facilities. In the pursuit of beneficially utilizing and/or disposing of biosolids, public
agencies and private enterprises are continuously developing and evaluating various technologies for different uses and disposal options. The use of biosolids as a soil conditioner and fertilizer is an established practice. Many municipalities in the United States of America and Japan use
incineration to dispose of biosolids. In addition to these conventional means for beneficially utilizing and/or disposing of biosolids, several innovative uses have also been developed. These include construction products (concrete, aggregate, cement, light weight aggregate, tiles, bricks,
permeable brick, ceramics etc.), fuels (methane, oil, liquid fuels etc.), chemicals (solvents, activated carbon, biopesticides), fertilizer formulations, and animal feed products. Conventional practices, such as the use of composted biosolids and other types of well stabilized biosolids
(i.e., Class A and Class B biosolids) in land application programs will continue to dominate in the Untied States where agricultural land is available. However, in a country like Japan which is heavily industrialized and land is at a premium, land application of biosolids will continue to
diminish, and innovative uses of biosolids such as those mentioned above will increase.
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