Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$17.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Or sign up for a free trial


Membrane treatment of water is on the increase. Several factors are responsible for this trend, which is being seen in both potable and wastewater treatment. The factors include the decreasing cost of membrane equipment, which make membrane treatment more cost competitive with conventional treatment processes, increased concern for pathogen removal, use of less desirable source water for water treatment, often with higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations, and the growing desire for reuse of wastewater treatment plant effluent. The waste streams generated from membrane treatment, however, can pose difficult problems for disposal.

Since membrane treatment facilities generate high TDS permeate, sending the brine to a wastewater treatment plant can cause salt toxicity, disrupting the plant performance. Lagoon evaporation has traditionally been used to decrease the volume of the brine, allowing the remaining concentrate to be handled as a solid. This practice is limited by its large site requirements and is often only practicable in arid climates. Consequently, alternate brine treatment technologies are being investigated, which include:

Freeze concentration – directional freezing of brine forces solids concentration in the non-frozen portion of the liquid, resulting in desalted ice fraction

Mechanical evaporation – addition of mechanical energy to accelerate evaporation process and reduce space requirements

Beneficial reuse of the brine – using brine stream as sodium source for on-site sodium hypochlorite generation.

This paper reviews these technologies, discussing the current state-of-the-practice, limitations, and relative costs.

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2001-01-01

More about this publication?
  • Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation is an archive of papers published in the proceedings of the annual Water Environment Federation® Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC® ) and specialty conferences held since the year 2000. These proceedings are not peer reviewed.

    WEF Members: Sign in (right panel) with your IngentaConnect user name and password to receive complimentary access.
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • About WEF Proceedings
  • WEFTEC Conference Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free ContentFree content
  • Partial Free ContentPartial Free content
  • New ContentNew content
  • Open Access ContentOpen access content
  • Partial Open Access ContentPartial Open access content
  • Subscribed ContentSubscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed ContentPartial Subscribed content
  • Free Trial ContentFree trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more